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Children's health needs differ from adults in important ways. The rapid development of the nervous system, combined with the plasticity of bone structures, creates a delicate operating environment. Advanced specialization in pediatric surgery is required for physicians, in order to provide optimal care. Congenital heart and lung defects may be reconstructed after birth, affording normal child development, and pediatric intensive care is available in extreme emergency situations. Further, facial plastic surgery can address cleft lip and palate malformation. The primary areas of practice in pediatrics are as follows:

Pediatric radiology provides comprehensive diagnostic body and musculoskeletal imaging of children from infancy through adolescence. Early detection is crucial, as urologic diseases of childhood differ from those of adults in many respects, often requiring specialized diagnostic studies and treatments.

Pediatric otolaryngology offers diagnosis and treatment for children with problems of the ear, nose and throat such as laryngitis, tonsillitis, hearing loss, dizziness and thyroid problems. Pediatric pathology covers all aspects of the pathology of pediatric diseases, from congenital malformations to oncologic tumors.

Pediatric cardiac surgery treats children with inherited and acquired heart defects. Craniofacial surgery includes cleft lip and palate surgery, while pediatric ophthalmic surgeries may include cataract, cornea, glaucoma, neuro-ophthalmology, ophthalmic plastic surgery, diabetic retinopathy, uveitis, refractive surgery, and strabismus surgery.

National Institute of Child Health

The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) conducts research on fertility, pregnancy, child development, and pediatric rehabilitation. Please browse information about research grants from the NICHD. This institute is part of the National Institutes of Health, one of the largest grant-issuing bodies world wide. The following NICHD links provide further information on topics within the field of pediatrics:

Adrenal Gland Disorders
Asperger Syndrome
Birth Defects
Cushing Syndrome
High-Risk Pregnancy
Infant Health
Klinefelter Syndrome
Learning Disabilities
McCune-Albright Syndrome
Menkes Disease
Muscular Dystrophy
Newborn Screening
Pelvic Floor Disorders
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
Preterm Labor and Birth
Primary Ovarian Insufficiency
Reading Disorders
Rett Syndrome
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
Traumatic Brain Injury
Turner Syndrome
Uterine Fibroids

20 Largest Children's Hospitals

The 20 largest children's hospitals in America, ranked in descending order by the number of beds. This list is based on data from the American Hospital Directory.

1. Children's Hospital Los Angeles
2. The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
3. Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
4. Texas Children's Hospital, Houston
5. Nationwide Children's Hospital
6. Boston Children's Hospital
7. Children's Medical Center of Dallas
8. Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota
9. Akron, Ohio Children's Hospital
10. Children's Hospital Central California, Madera
11. Miller Children's Hospital Long Beach
12. Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora
13. Saint Louis Children's Hospital
14. Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford
15. Arkansas Children's Hospital, Little Rock
16. Cook Children's Medical Center, Fort Worth, Texas
17. Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC
18. Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
19. Children's Hospital, Birmingham
20. Primary Children's Medical Center, Salt Lake City

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