Colleges of Nursing
Health Education Guide


Physical Therapy

Physical therapy provides a full range of diagnostic and therapeutic services, including balance training, occupational rehabilitation, soft tissue mobilization, and electrical stimulation, to recover a range of motion and coordination. Other physical therapy interventions may include the following:

• Aquatic therapy
• Conditioning
• Gait training
• Ice massage
• Phonophoresis
• Massage therapy
• Mechanical traction
• Paraffin bath
• Strength exercises
• Therapeutic ultrasound
• Whirlpool bath
• Wound care

Sports Medicine

The strength of bone:

SubstanceLbs per cubic footTensionCompressionShear
Oak Tree4612,5007,0004,000
Compact bone11913,20018,00011,800

Sports injuries that require immediate treatment include the following conditions:

Articular cartilage injuries
Biceps tendon injuries
Hip labral tears
Rotator cuff tears
Shoulder dislocation
Shoulder instability

Speech Language Pathology

A speech-language pathologist is a specialist in communication and swallowing disorders. Most speech-language pathologists have a bachelor's degree, and are state licensed. Speech-language pathologists evaluate and treat speech, language, cognitive, oral, and swallowing deficits. Feeding and swallowing problems can have a variety of causes. Infants born with cleft lip or palate may experience difficulty with eating. The speech-language pathologist can help choose an appropriate bottle and positioning to improve feeding skills. Further, vocal cord dysfunction is sometimes mistaken for asthma. The vocal folds squeeze shut tightly, making it difficult to breathe. The speech-language pathologist will help determine what is causing the attacks and help the child learn how to control the spasms in the vocal folds.

Adults who have a neurological disease such as a stroke, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson’s disease, or Lou Gehrig’s disease, may have difficulty communicating or swallowing. After someone suffers a stroke, they often have difficulty understanding what is said, or have trouble expressing their thoughts. Stroke can also cause difficulty with forming words, if the muscles in the mouth are not working well.

    source:   Central Baptist Hospital

Cataract Surgery

A cataract is a clouding of the eye's lens that causes decreased vision. The lens of the eye focuses light rays onto the retina (the light sensitive tissue at the back of the eye) where an image is recorded. This allows us to see things clearly. The lens of the eye comprises mostly water and protein. The protein is arranged in a way that keeps the lens clear and lets light pass through it. A cataract develops when some of the protein clumps together and starts to cloud an area of the lens. A cataract won't spread from one eye to the other, although many people develop cataracts in both eyes. As the cataract matures and gets cloudier, it may become difficult to read and do other normal tasks.

Cataract surgery is usually done as an outpatient under local anesthesia and most often takes less than one hour. Most cataract surgeries involve removing the cloudy lens and replacing it with an artificial one. There are two primary types of cataract removal surgery. The first is Phacoemulsification, or Small Incision Cataract Surgery, where a tiny probe is inserted into the eye. The probe emits ultrasound waves that break up the cloudy lens into small fragments. The tiny pieces are then removed by suction. This is the most common form of cataract removal surgery, and usually requires no stitches. The second type of cataract surgery is called is Extracapsular Surgery, where an incision is made in the eye, and the hard center of the lens is removed. The remainder of the lens is removed by suction. This surgery usually requires stitches, although the stitches can stay in the eye permanently. In both types of surgery, local anesthesia is used so that you do not feel any pain.

In most cases, the removed lens is replaced by an intraocular lens (IOL). An IOL is a clear artificial lens. It requires no special care, and remains permanently in the eye. In some cases, an IOL cannot be used, usually due to surgical complications, unusual anatomy, or other eye diseases. In these cases, either a contact lens or eyeglasses that provide very powerful magnification are used after the surgery to correct the vision.

    source:   National Eye Institute resource pages:

Eye Health Information
Clinical Studies
Refractive Errors
Eye Disease Simulations
Diagram of the Eye
Macular Degeneration
Retinal Detachment
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